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Metrology is the SCIENCE of measurement. Metrology is divided into three basic overlapping activities. The first being the definition of units of measurement, second the realization of these units of measurement in practice, and last traceability, which is linking measurements made in practice to the reference standards. These overlapping activities are used in varying degrees by the three basic sub-fields of Metrology. The sub-fields are scientific or fundamental metrology, which is concerned with the establishment of units of measurement, Applied, technical or industrial metrology, the application of measurement to manufacturing and other processes in society, and Legal metrology, which covers the regulation and statutory requirements for measuring instruments and the methods of measurement.
In each country, a national measurement system (NMS) exists as a network of laboratories, calibration facilities and accreditation bodies which implement and maintain its metrology infrastructure. The NMS affects how measurements are made in a country and their recognition by the international community, which has a wide-ranging impact in its society (including economics, energy, environment, health, manufacturing, industry and consumer confidence). The effects of metrology on trade and economy are some of the easiest-observed societal impacts. To facilitate fair trade, there must be an agreed-upon system of measurement. In India, Metrology laboratories are accredited by NABL (National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (http://www.nabl-india.org/)
Science is linked with fundamental research as well as with Engineering. Concepts studied during engineering like Optics, PCB design, Mechatronic, Robotics, Material Science etc. are heavily used in the domain of Metrology and CAD/ CAM.