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These differences are seen in the system of “Internship” in both countries. There are very few universities interested in six months long internship in Japan, but the German system usually requires every student to accomplish an almost six months internship or international student experience. The internship experience enables students to think about their problems in their fields and the international experience enables them to understand that there are many different ideas in the world, whereas most Japanese students want to solve problems using their knowledge. (Source: Difference of engineering education systems between Japan & Germany - Takashi SATO et al.).
Many Japanese universities normally have the educational system, which checks the students’ “knowledge” about theories and answers, but engineering education in Germany provides the system "Diplomarbeit" plus internship and some oral examinations to check the students’ "understandings" instead of their "knowledge". So, German graduates can think in their tasks. We can say Japan has 'Specialists'; however, Germany has 'Generalists', when students graduate from universities in engineering fields.
American students give much lesser importance to grades as compared to the Indian counterparts. They do believe that grades are important, of course! But they have a more intrinsic sense of “wanting to learn” rather than “scoring good grades”. The fraction of students who take up a course because they think they will learn something interesting in that, is much larger in USA than in India. This includes courses in entirely different disciplines.
A lot of universities in USA will offer undergrads the chance to choose/change their major at the end of first year (or in some cases, even a bit later). This does happen in India as well, but the chances are much lower. Only the students at the top of their batches get an opportunity to do it! Thus, in USA, you can take a variety if courses and then choose what stream you want to follow.
Research is a much more integral part of engineering/science education in USA. Most undergrads would have had significant research experience at the university, as well as some industry exposure, by the time they graduate. This is in strong contrast to India, where even the final year projects are at most times, not nearly as rigorous!
There is a much larger stress on theoretical aspects in India. The overall course content, for most parts, is larger in India as compared to equivalent courses in USA. Examinations are far more stressful. In USA, there is, in general, a much larger continuous assessment component. There are assignments throughout the semester, and students do take them much more seriously than India. They work through the assignments much harder than most Indian students. The laws against plagiarism are much stricter. In case of exams, the Indian system is much more rigorous. In USA, a lot of exams are open-book and/or open-notes (and in some cases, open internet access as well!). Thus, the need to learn formulae is way lower! In India, this does happen, but to a much smaller extent.
Though not restricted to engineering, the students in USA in general are much freer and do their undergrads with a target of discovering what they like, and how they want their life to pan out with! A lot of them do part-time jobs at multiple places. The whole culture is much more relaxed than in India. However, when they do find something to work upon that they like, they pursue that with endless passion. Overall, they choose whatever they want to learn, and learn it well. This makes their undergrad experience much more fulfilling than their Indian counterparts, who have the target (and thus, pressure) of either earning a good job or getting into another reputed higher educational program (MS/PhD/MBA, etc.).